Posts Tagged With: Cruise

The Queen Who Became a King

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This is remarkable story of a Queen who became a King is quite unique, even in the amazing and fanaciful world of ancient Egypt. Queen Hatshepsut meaning “Foremost of Noble Ladies” (1508–1458 BC) and is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Women had a high status in ancient Egypt and enjoyed the legal right to own, inherit, or will property however; a woman becoming pharaoh was rare. Hatshepsut had been well trained in her duties as the daughter of a pharaoh. During her father’s reign she held the powerful office of “God’s Wife” a term often allocated to royal women.

Her accomplishments were many including a number of expeditions to other counties such as Ethiopia and Somalia. She directed many construction projects in her reign, possibly more than any other previous Middle Kingdom pharaohs. She was often depicted as a man waring a false beard, or in the guise of a lion with a human face and wearing a false beard. She was referred to by both male and female pronouns depending on the situation but was regarded politically as an “honorary man.” She married her half brother when she was around 12. He died young and she assumed the role of regent for her infant stepson. She ruled for 21 years when Egypt was a powerhouse in the region and enjoyed an extended period of peace and prosperity. Her legacy was almost lost to history, because on her death, her stepson undertook to obliterate any trace of her reign.

As soon as a pharaoh ascended to the throne work commenced on his burial tomb. The longer the King’s reign, the grander the tomb became in its decoration and the size. A walk through the Valley of the Kings, and to a lesser scale the Valley of the Queens, reinforced the importance that the Kings and Queens placed on preparing themselves for the next life. For a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from KV54, a simple pit, to KV5, a complex tomb with over 120 chambers). The Valley of the Kings was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, together with those of a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs.

I visited the treasures of Tutankhamen in the Cairo Museum which was amazing in its fantastic opulence. He reigned for only a short period so his tomb was a relatively small size in comparison to others. I can only imagine the wealth and splendor that was inside the larger burial chambers and tombs of Pharaohs whose reigns were significantly longer and more powerful than the boy king.

On November 4th 1922, Egyptologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun, the most complete and well-preserved tomb of any of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs This is what Howard Carter said on making the discovery “…as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold – everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment – an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by – I was struck dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, ‘Can you see anything?’ it was all I could do to get out the words, ‘Yes, wonderful things.”

Here are some interesting details about the boy king who has fascinated people since the discovery of his tomb.
• Tutankhamun was only eight or nine when he became ruler of Eygpt.
• Tutankhamun was only King for about ten years before dying in his late teens. It was estimated that he ruled from 1333 BC to 1324 BC.
• Over the years, scientists have used available technology to determine the cause of Tutankhamun’s death. The two most popular theories about his death are that he suffered a blow to the back of the head, either accidentally or deliberately (in other words, murder), or that he broke or fractured his leg which became infected – an infection that led to his death possibly only days later.
• Tutankhamun may have married one of his step-sisters. It is thought that Tutankhamun’s father was Akhenaten. Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti, who bore him six daughters. Akhenaten also had a lesser wife, Kira, who is believed to have given birth to Tutankhamun. It is thought that Tutankhamun married Ankhesenpaaten, one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Confused?
• Tutankhamun’s remains are still contained in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings at Luxor, Egypt.
• His famous burial mask is on public display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The famous gold mask that rested on the pharoahs mummy weighs ten kilos (22 lbs) and is made of gold.
• Cat scans on Tutankhamun’s body in 2005 revealed that the King was about 5 foot, 8 inches tall (180 cm). He was of slight build but was well nourished.
• Approximately 3500 artifacts were found in King Tut’s tomb. It was the first, and to this day the only, royal tomb in the history of Egyptology to be found practically untouched.

The final jaw dropping Egyption experience came at the Great Temple of Ramses (c.1290-1224 BCE) in Abu Simbel. This amazing edifice is carved out of the actual mountain side and is about 38 meters long and 31 meters high. The temple is dedicated to the most important gods of the New Kingdom, Ptah (the creator god of Memphis), Amun-Re (the great god of Thebes) and Re-Harakhte (sun god of Heliopolis), as well as to the Pharaoh, Ramses II himself, whose reign may have lasted 67 years.

The four colossi, including statues of Ramses II, are more than 20 meters high and about 4 meters from ear to ear. They sit impassively guarding the entrance to the temple staring out over Lake Nasser. Their faces are expressionless, giving no trace of the amazing engineering feat that was undertaken to save them and the temple from the rising waters of the new dam.

They and the temple, were carved up into small blocks, carried to higher ground and then reassembled above the high-water mark. Not only were the statues and temple moved but the engineers carved up the mountain that they were carved from and moved it too with the temple inside.

These temples, sat close to the Nile and were probably once brightly coloured and cut into the natural rock. After eleven centuries of oblivion, these temples were rediscovered in 1813 when Johann Ludwig Burckhardt saw by accident the upper parts of the colossal figures. In 1817 Giovanni Battista Belzoni found the entrance, partially freed from the sand. In the following years these temples were often partially covered by shifting sand.

Today, visitors see the reconstructed temples now relocated on higher ground (60 meters directly above their earlier position) after the heroic international rescue efforts to save these treasures from the damming of the Nile and the creation of Lake Nasser. Unlike visitors of the past to Egypt, today’s visitors must adhere to a strict code of conduct including no photography inside the tombs and chambers, or touching of the relics. I was amused to see that many great monuments in Egypt have fallen foul to graffitists. Not today’s baggy jeans and skateboard riding “street artists”, but wealthy well-bred and young noble-men of independent means, making the Grand Tour in the 1800s. On discovering these ancient edifices, many took this as an opportunity to carve their names and dates of their visits into the statue, column or obelisk etc.

Did you enjoy my trip to Egypt? Please leave a comment below…

Next blog – Petra Jordan – A Wonder of the Ancient World

Categories: Egypt, Language, Photography, Travel, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Stockholm – Venice of the North

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The flight from Rome to Stockholm via Munich was uneventful but I was fascinated to watch the Italian landscape change from the chaotic patchwork of farms to the cool green meadows of the alpine region of the Alps. The stone houses and barns of the Italian countryside are surrounded by brown fields, newly ploughed or a tapestry of ripe wheat and corn waiting to be harvested. Dense oak forests hug craggy hillsides where small hill top towns adorn the summits and spill over the edges like icing dripping over a cake.

As I fly across the Alps, the landscape changes to a vivid green in the deep valleys that vast glaciers cut between the mountains long ago. Nestling in the bottom of these glacial valleys, are quaint villages of white houses with red roofs which cluster along the river banks that meander through these picture book valleys. On either side of the valleys, the mountains rise up vertically from the valley floor. The verdant meadows give way to rocky grey summits where in some sheltered pockets there is perpetual snow.

The view from the aeroplane window could be described as panoramic unlike the sight of my lunch tray which drew gaps of horror not delight from my lips. Lufthansa as you know is the national carrier for Germany so this nationalistic fervour may account for a dinner of meatballs (closely resembling male anatomical parts) floating in a soggy soup of sauerkraut. This may not be the wisest meal to feed to 100 or so people who are trapped in a tin can 30,000 feet above the earth for 4 hours -the atmosphere in the plane may get a bit ripe after consuming this dinner!

My wish for cooler weather after the unrelenting heat of Italy was granted. On arrival in Stockholm, I was greeted with driving rain and a cold blustery wind whipping the fallen leaves out of the gutters. The drive from the airport was through dense pine forests and after about 45 minutes we are in the centre of Stockholm. What a beautiful city this is. There is water everywhere. The buildings are low rise and this makes for an intimate city on a human scale. No soaring canyons that block out the light and create great wind tunnels.

Founded around 1250 Stockholm is a conglomerate of 14 islands on the coast in the south-east of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren and it has a population of around 1.5 million. Sometimes called the “Venice of the North” Stockholm is known for its beauty, its buildings and the many styles of architecture. The first part of the name (stock) means log in Swedish, although it may also be connected to an old German word (Stock) meaning fortification. The second part of the name (holm) means islet. We explored the city by foot, bus and canal boat gaining an insight into the life of the City and its different sectors.

One of the islands is Stockholm’s core – the present Old Town – Gamla Stan which was built on the central island in the 13th century. This small island is a warren of cobbled streets, interesting buildings dating from the Middle Ages and later, cute little squares and tiny green spaces. There is a central square which is surrounded by beautiful buildings and is a congregation point for many tourists who flock there to people watch or take a breather to rest their feet after navigating the treacherous cobble stones.

Gamla Stan is also the site of the royal palace, an imposing square building that overlooks many parts of the city and other islands. Today this is the administrative centre for the Royal household and a place where important ceremonial duties and functions are carried out. It is an impressive sight when it is time for changing of the guard at the palace as a large cavalry troop parades through the streets, all gleaming, pressed and handsome on their chestnut horses.

The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade between many of the neighbouring countries: Denmark, Estonia, Norway, Germany and Poland. This ideal geographic position also brought many wars and disputes to its shores, the aggressors hoping to steal more land, power and wealth. These battles see-sawed over the centuries particularly between Denmark and Sweden and to this day there seems to be some underlying tensions often disguised as humour.

The next leg of the holiday is a 2-week cruise around the Baltic. We made our way to the harbour where we could see giant ferries that traverse the Baltic from Stockholm to St Petersburg, Helsinki, Estonia and other ports to the east and to the west Copenhagen, Oslo and other ports along the way. These giant ferries take hundreds of passengers and trucks, bikes and cars traversing the shipping lanes of the Baltic.

Our ship was easily identified by its gracious nautical profile and the 5 masts that will carry the sails when we are out to sea. It is the largest sailing ship in the world and carries about 300 passengers and 150 staff. All your creature comforts are catered for, a beauty salon for massages and facials, gym (I am not inclined to venture in there), a coffee shop where you can get a coffee and sandwich, 3 restaurants, a pool deck with a small pool and 2 hot tubs, 2 bars and lounges, quiet nooks to lounge both in and out of the sun.

We set sail around 6 pm and head out to sea through the myriad of pretty islands that make up Stockholm’s harbour. We turn east and head for St Petersburg – a 2-day sail away. I sink into life on board – relaxing by the pool in warm sun (no scorching Mediterranean heat here), reading, gazing out over the deep blue sea, contemplating the world from the other side of my eye lids, lulled by the quiet as the only sound is the swishing of the wind and the waves.

Some people say that the only clock needed on board is the one in your tummy. The day starts with breakfast where there is an ample buffet of fruit, yoghurt, smoothies, juices, hot savoury dishes – prepared and on order, smoked salmon and the trimmings, freshly baked bread, rolls and pastries. Lunch is a buffet – a range of salads and cold cuts, cheeses, fruit, deserts, ice creams and a daily bread and butter pudding, to supplement this there is a made to order pasta dish. Afternoon tea is served on deck – mini rolls and cakes and cookies. At dinnertime savouries are served with cocktails in the lounge and then dinner comprises a selection of appetisers, salad and soups, main course and finishing with cheese and dessert. After all that if you wake up at 2.00 am and have the munchies there is 24-hour room service.

If you enjoyed this blog please leave a comment below and forward this onto your friends. Thank you.

Next port of call – St Petersburg – stay tuned for more fun on the high sea.

Categories: Food, Wine and Cooking, Language, Photography, Stockholm, Travel, Uncategorized, Wine | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

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