This is remarkable story of a Queen who became a King is quite unique, even in the amazing and fanaciful world of ancient Egypt. Queen Hatshepsut meaning “Foremost of Noble Ladies” (1508–1458 BC) and is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Women had a high status in ancient Egypt and enjoyed the legal right to own, inherit, or will property however; a woman becoming pharaoh was rare. Hatshepsut had been well trained in her duties as the daughter of a pharaoh. During her father’s reign she held the powerful office of “God’s Wife” a term often allocated to royal women.
Her accomplishments were many including a number of expeditions to other counties such as Ethiopia and Somalia. She directed many construction projects in her reign, possibly more than any other previous Middle Kingdom pharaohs. She was often depicted as a man waring a false beard, or in the guise of a lion with a human face and wearing a false beard. She was referred to by both male and female pronouns depending on the situation but was regarded politically as an “honorary man.” She married her half brother when she was around 12. He died young and she assumed the role of regent for her infant stepson. She ruled for 21 years when Egypt was a powerhouse in the region and enjoyed an extended period of peace and prosperity. Her legacy was almost lost to history, because on her death, her stepson undertook to obliterate any trace of her reign.
As soon as a pharaoh ascended to the throne work commenced on his burial tomb. The longer the King’s reign, the grander the tomb became in its decoration and the size. A walk through the Valley of the Kings, and to a lesser scale the Valley of the Queens, reinforced the importance that the Kings and Queens placed on preparing themselves for the next life. For a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from KV54, a simple pit, to KV5, a complex tomb with over 120 chambers). The Valley of the Kings was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, together with those of a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs.
I visited the treasures of Tutankhamen in the Cairo Museum which was amazing in its fantastic opulence. He reigned for only a short period so his tomb was a relatively small size in comparison to others. I can only imagine the wealth and splendor that was inside the larger burial chambers and tombs of Pharaohs whose reigns were significantly longer and more powerful than the boy king.
On November 4th 1922, Egyptologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamun, the most complete and well-preserved tomb of any of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs This is what Howard Carter said on making the discovery “…as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold – everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment – an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by – I was struck dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, ‘Can you see anything?’ it was all I could do to get out the words, ‘Yes, wonderful things.”
Here are some interesting details about the boy king who has fascinated people since the discovery of his tomb.
• Tutankhamun was only eight or nine when he became ruler of Eygpt.
• Tutankhamun was only King for about ten years before dying in his late teens. It was estimated that he ruled from 1333 BC to 1324 BC.
• Over the years, scientists have used available technology to determine the cause of Tutankhamun’s death. The two most popular theories about his death are that he suffered a blow to the back of the head, either accidentally or deliberately (in other words, murder), or that he broke or fractured his leg which became infected – an infection that led to his death possibly only days later.
• Tutankhamun may have married one of his step-sisters. It is thought that Tutankhamun’s father was Akhenaten. Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti, who bore him six daughters. Akhenaten also had a lesser wife, Kira, who is believed to have given birth to Tutankhamun. It is thought that Tutankhamun married Ankhesenpaaten, one of the daughters of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Confused?
• Tutankhamun’s remains are still contained in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings at Luxor, Egypt.
• His famous burial mask is on public display in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The famous gold mask that rested on the pharoahs mummy weighs ten kilos (22 lbs) and is made of gold.
• Cat scans on Tutankhamun’s body in 2005 revealed that the King was about 5 foot, 8 inches tall (180 cm). He was of slight build but was well nourished.
• Approximately 3500 artifacts were found in King Tut’s tomb. It was the first, and to this day the only, royal tomb in the history of Egyptology to be found practically untouched.
The final jaw dropping Egyption experience came at the Great Temple of Ramses (c.1290-1224 BCE) in Abu Simbel. This amazing edifice is carved out of the actual mountain side and is about 38 meters long and 31 meters high. The temple is dedicated to the most important gods of the New Kingdom, Ptah (the creator god of Memphis), Amun-Re (the great god of Thebes) and Re-Harakhte (sun god of Heliopolis), as well as to the Pharaoh, Ramses II himself, whose reign may have lasted 67 years.
The four colossi, including statues of Ramses II, are more than 20 meters high and about 4 meters from ear to ear. They sit impassively guarding the entrance to the temple staring out over Lake Nasser. Their faces are expressionless, giving no trace of the amazing engineering feat that was undertaken to save them and the temple from the rising waters of the new dam.
They and the temple, were carved up into small blocks, carried to higher ground and then reassembled above the high-water mark. Not only were the statues and temple moved but the engineers carved up the mountain that they were carved from and moved it too with the temple inside.
These temples, sat close to the Nile and were probably once brightly coloured and cut into the natural rock. After eleven centuries of oblivion, these temples were rediscovered in 1813 when Johann Ludwig Burckhardt saw by accident the upper parts of the colossal figures. In 1817 Giovanni Battista Belzoni found the entrance, partially freed from the sand. In the following years these temples were often partially covered by shifting sand.
Today, visitors see the reconstructed temples now relocated on higher ground (60 meters directly above their earlier position) after the heroic international rescue efforts to save these treasures from the damming of the Nile and the creation of Lake Nasser. Unlike visitors of the past to Egypt, today’s visitors must adhere to a strict code of conduct including no photography inside the tombs and chambers, or touching of the relics. I was amused to see that many great monuments in Egypt have fallen foul to graffitists. Not today’s baggy jeans and skateboard riding “street artists”, but wealthy well-bred and young noble-men of independent means, making the Grand Tour in the 1800s. On discovering these ancient edifices, many took this as an opportunity to carve their names and dates of their visits into the statue, column or obelisk etc.
Did you enjoy my trip to Egypt? Please leave a comment below…
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